Governments are the groups of people and laws that define and control the countries where we live. There are many different kinds of governments, but all of them do a similar thing: they oversee the rules and interactions that happen in public life. Governments also provide goods and services that are needed by everyone, regardless of their wealth or income. These include things like national security, education, and fire and police departments. Governments at the state and local level also provide valuable services such as mail delivery, public education, transportation, and water or sewer systems.
In the United States, the most important job of our government is to protect us from outside threats and to provide education for all citizens. These are called “public goods,” because they are available to all without charge. Governments can offer these goods and services because they have the power to raise money by taxing people, businesses, or property. They can also employ large numbers of people to build and maintain roads, schools, and airports and to write and enforce laws that protect people.
A government also provides stability and safety in the form of a military that can respond to threats to our country. This is why we pay taxes to support our military and the police and fire departments that serve us. Governments at the local and state level also provide other valuable goods and services that are needed by everyone, such as health care, housing, and food. They also manage and provide the infrastructure that allows us to use computers and phones, and they run a postal service.
The people who make up a government are elected by citizens to represent them in making and enforcing laws. In the United States, we have a President, who leads the Executive Branch, and a Congress, which is the lawmaking branch. They are supported by a Cabinet, a group of people who handle the day-to-day work of our government. They work with the President, who is in charge of bigger problems and guiding the nation.
We also have a Judiciary, which makes sure that our laws are fair and equal. The President nominates Supreme Court justices, and the Senate in the legislative branch confirms these nominations before they become judges. The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting laws and judging whether or not they are constitutional.
At the local level, we vote for representatives to serve on city councils and state legislatures. These bodies make laws that affect the entire community and determine how money collected from taxpayers will be spent for services. For example, on the state level, funds may be allotted for things like state colleges and universities, maintenance of roads, and wildlife management. On the federal level, funding goes for things like defense, social security, and maintenance of national parks. At all levels, representatives who are elected by the people try to secure funding for services that benefit their constituents.